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Chaotic inflation theory suggests the universe is expanding.


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Chaotic Inflation theory is a variety of the inflationary universe model. Chaotic Inflation theory is itself an outgrowth (or extension) of the Big Bang theory. Chaotic Inflation, proposed by physicist Andrei Linde, models our universe as one of many that grew as part of a multiverse owing to a vacuum that had not decayed to its ground state. In this theory, the peaks in the evolution of a scalar field (determining the energy of the vacuum) correspond to regions of rapid inflation which dominate, creating "bubble universes," making the structure of space fractal on the very largest scales, likely at scales larger than the observable universe. Chaotic Inflation (along with some other types of inflation) is usually a sub-class of eternal inflation, since the expansion of the inflationary peaks exhibit positive feedback and come to dominate the large scale dynamics of the universe. Alan Guth's 2007 paper, Eternal inflation and its implications details what is now known on the subject, and demonstrates that this particular flavour of Inflationary universe theory is relatively current, or is still considered viable, more than 20 years after its inception.

History of the Chaotic Inflation theory.

Chaotic Inflation theory.
Chaotic Inflation theory. The physical size of the Hubble radius (solid line) as a function of the linear expansion (scale factor) of the universe.

Inflation, or the inflationary universe theory, was developed as a way to overcome the few remaining problems with what was otherwise considered a successful theory of cosmology, the Big Bang model. It is now known that Alexei Starobinsky, at the L.D. Landau Institute of Theoretical Physics in Moscow developed the first realistic Inflation theory in 1979 but failed to articulate its relevance to modern cosmological problems. Due to political difficulties in the former Soviet Union, regarding the free exchange of scientific knowledge, most scientists outside the USSR remained ignorant about Starobinsky’s work until years later. Starobinsky's model was relatively complicated, however, and said little about how the inflation process could start.

In 1979 Alan Guth of the United States developed an inflationary model independently, which did offer a mechanism for inflation to begin, the decay of a so-called false vacuum into 'bubbles' of 'true vacuum' that expanded at the speed of light. Guth coined the term, "inflation," and he was the first to discuss the theory with other scientists worldwide. But this formulation was problematic, as there was no consistent way to bring an end to the inflationary epoch and end up with the isotropic, homogeneous Universe observed today. See:- Developments of theory. In 1982, this "graceful exit problem" was solved by Andreas Albrecht and Paul J. Steinhardt and also independently by Andrei Linde.

In 1986, Linde published an alternative model of inflation that also reproduced the same successes of new inflation entitled "Eternally Existing Self-Reproducing Chaotic Inflationary Universe," which provides a detailed description of what has become known as the Chaotic Inflation theory or eternal inflation. The Chaotic Inflation theory is in some ways similar to Fred Hoyle’s Steady state theory, as it employs the metaphor of a universe that is eternally existing, and thus does not require a unique beginning or an ultimate end of the cosmos.

Quantum fluctuations in the Chaotic Inflation theory.

Chaotic Inflation theory models quantum fluctuations in the rate of inflation. Those regions with a higher rate of inflation expand faster and dominate the universe, despite the natural tendency of inflation to end in other regions. This allows inflation to continue forever, to produce future-eternal inflation.

Within the framework of established knowledge of physics and cosmology, our universe could be one of many in a super-universe or multiverse. Linde (1990, 1994) has proposed that a background space-time "foam" empty of matter and radiation will experience local quantum fluctuations in curvature, forming many bubbles of false vacuum that individually inflate into mini-universes with random characteristics. Each universe within the multiverse can have a different set of constants and physical laws. Some might have life of a form different from ours; others might have no life at all or something even more complex or so different that we cannot even imagine it. Obviously we are in one of those universes with life.

-Victor J. Stenger, Is The Universe Fine-Tuned for us?

Due to quantum uncertainty energy fluctuations such as electron and its anti-particle a positron can arise spontaneously out of nothing but must disappear rapidly. The lower the energy of the bubble is the longer it can exist. A gravitational field has negative energy. Matter has positive energy. The 2 figures cancel out provided the universe is completely flat. In that case the universe has zero energy and can theoretically last forever.

More recently past-eternal models have been proposed which adhere to the perfect cosmological principle and have features of the steady state cosmos. The universe may also decay.

Differential decay with the Chaotic Inflation theory.

In standard inflation, inflationary expansion occurred while the universe was in a false vacuum state, halting when the universe decayed to a true vacuum state becoming a general and inclusive phenomenon with homogeneity throughout, yielding a single expanding universe which is "our general reality" wherein the laws of physics are consistent throughout. In this case, the physical laws "just happen" to be compatible with the evolution of life.

The bubble universe model proposes that different regions of this inflationary universe (termed a multiverse) decayed to a true vacuum state at different times, with decaying regions corresponding to "sub"- universes not in causal contact with each other and resulting in different physical laws in different regions which are then subject to "selection" which determine each region’s components based upon (dependent on) the survivability of the quantum components within that region. The end result will be a finite number of universes with physical laws consistent within each region of spacetime.

False vacuum and true vacuum in the Chaotic Inflation theory.

Variants of the bubble universe model postulate multiple false vacuum states, which result in lower-energy false-vacuum "progeny" universes spawned, which in turn produce true vacuum state progeny universes within themselves.



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