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1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler.
1st SS Division The Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH) founded in September 1933 was Adolf Hitler's personal Bodyguard Regiment ("Leibstandarte" being a somewhat archaic German expression for the personal bodyguard of a military leader). In 1939 the LSSAH became a separate unit of the Waffen-SS aside the SS-TV and the SS-VT.
The LSSAH independently participated in combat during the Invasion of Poland. Elements of the LSSAH later joined the SS-VT prior to Operation Barbarossa in 1941 and by the end of World War II they had been increased in size from a regiment to a Panzer division.
The elite division was a component of the Waffen-SS which was found guilty of war crimes in the Nuremberg Trials.
1st SS Division early history.
In the earliest days of the NSDAP, it was realized by the leaders that bodyguard units composed of trustworthy and loyal men would be a wise development. Ernst Röhm formed a guard formation from the 19.Granatwerfer-Kompanie, and from this formation the Sturmabteilung (SA) soon evolved. Adolf Hitler, realizing the potential threat that the SA had presented, in early 1923 ordered the formation of a bodyguard for himself. The tiny unit, originally formed by only eight men (and commanded by Julius Schreck and Joseph Berchtold), was designated the Stabswache (Staff Guard). The guards of the Stabswache were issued uniforms that showed their difference from the SA (despite the fact that at this stage the Stabswache still was under overall SA control). Schreck resurrected the use of the Totenkopf (Deaths head-skull) as insignia, which had been a symbol used by various élite forces throughout the Prussian kingdom and the later German Empire.
Soon after its formation, the unit was renamed Stoßtrupp (Shock Troop) Adolf Hitler. On November 9, 1923, the Stoßtrupp, along with the SA and several other NSDAP paramilitary units, took part in the abortive Beer Hall Putsch in Munich. In the aftermath of the putsch, Hitler was imprisoned and the NSDAP and all associated formations, including the Stoßtrupp, were officially disbanded
Shortly after Hitler's release in 1924, he ordered a new bodyguard unit formed, again called the Stabswache, but this time it did not fall under SA control. In 1925, the Stabswache was renamed as the Schutzstaffel, abbreviated SS. By March 1933, the SS had grown from a tiny personal bodyguard unit to a formation of over 50,000 men. The decision was made to form a new bodyguard unit, picking the most capable and trustworthy SS men to form its cadre. By 1933 this unit was under the command of Josef "Sepp" Dietrich who had selected 117 men for the SS-Stabswache Berlin, out of these initial 117 men, three would become divisional commanders, at least eight would become regimental commanders, fifteen became battalion commanders and over thirty would become company commanders, all within the Waffen SS. Eleven men from the first company of 117 originals also went on to win the Knights Cross, and forty of them were awarded the German Cross in gold for bravery. Later in 1933, two further training units would be formed designated SS-Sonderkommando Zossen and a second unit, designated SS-Sonderkommando Jüterbog was raised
In September 1933, the two Sonderkommandos were merged into the SS-Sonderkommando Berlin. In November 1933, on the 10th anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch, the Sonderkommando took part in the rally and memorial service at the Feldherrnhalle, erected in the place where many NSDAP members had fallen during the putsch. All members of the Sonderkommando then swore personal allegiance to Hitler himself. To conclude this ceremony, the Sonderkommando received a new title, Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler.
1st SS Division trial by fire-Leibstandarte expands.
In early 1934, Heinrich Himmler, the Reichsführer-SS, ordered the Leibstandarte to be renamed Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH). In late June, the LSSAH was called into action for the first time. Ernst Röhm, the Stabschef-SA, began to push for greater power for his already powerful SA. Hitler decided that the SA had to be put in its place, and ordered Himmler and Hermann Göring to prepare their elite units, Himmler's Leibstandarte and Göring's Landespolizeigruppe General Göring, for immediate action. The LSSAH formed two companies under the control of Jürgen Wagner and Otto Reich, and these formations were moved to Munich on 30 June.
Hitler ordered all SA leaders to attend a meeting at the Hanselbauer Hotel in Bad Wiessee, near Munich. On 30 June, Hitler joined Sepp Dietrich and a unit from the Leibstandarte and travelled to Bad Wiessee to personally command Röhm's arrest and subsequent execution. In what the Nazis called the Röhm Putsch to give their action an appearance of legitimacy, but otherwise came to be known as the Night of the Long Knives, the execution companies of the LSSAH, together with Göring's Landespolizeigruppe, performed Death Squad actions, carrying out many executions without trials over the next few days. By 13 July 1934, at least 177 people had been executed.
The actions of the SS, Gestapo, Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, and Göring's unit succeeded in effectively decapitating the SA and removing Röhm's threat to Hitler's leadership. Following the 'success' of the Night of the Long Knives, in recognition of their actions, both the LSSAH and the Landespolizeigruppe General Göring were expanded to regimental size and motorized. In addition, the SS was finally removed from overall SA control.
As the SS began to swell with new recruits, the LSSAH remained the pinnacle of Hitler's Aryan ideal. Strict recruitment regulations meant that only those deemed sufficiently Aryan, as well as being physically fit and National Socialists, would be admitted.
The LSSAH provided the honour guard at many of the Nuremberg Rallies and in 1935 took part in the reoccupation of the Saarland.
The Leibstandarte was also in the vanguard of the March into Austria as part of the Anschluss and in 1938 the LSSAH took part in the occupation of the Sudetenland. By 1939 the LSSAH was a full infantry regiment with three infantry battalions, an artillery battalion and anti-tank, reconnaissance and engineer subunits, it was involved in the annexation of Bohemia and Moravia. Soon after this action, the LSSAH was redesignated Infanterie-Regiment Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (mot.). When Hitler ordered the formation of an SS division in mid 1939, the Leibstandarte was designated to form its own unit, unlike the other Standarten of the SS-Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT) (SS-Standarte Deutschland, SS-Standarte Germania, and SS-Standarte Der Führer). The Polish crisis of August 1939 put these plans on hold, and the LSSAH was ordered to join XIII. Armeekorps, a part of Army Group South which was preparing for the attack on Poland.
Early war campaigns of the 1st SS Division.
During the initial stages of the Invasion of Poland, the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler was attached to the 17.Infanterie-Division and tasked with providing flank protection for the southern pincer. The regiment was involved in several ferocious battles against Polish cavalry brigades attempting to hit the flanks of the German advance. At Pabianice, a town near Lódz, the LSSAH fought off elements of the Polish 28th Infantry Division and the Wolynska Cavalry Brigade in close combat. Throughout the campaign the unit was notorious for torching villages.
After the success at Pabianice, the LSSAH was shifted to the area near Warsaw and attached to the 4.Panzer-Division under Generaloberst Georg-Hans Reinhardt, where it saw action preventing encircled Polish units from escaping, and repelling several desperate attempts by other Polish troops to break through. The LSSAH had proved itself an effective fighting unit during the campaign, though several[who?] Heer Generals had reservations about the high casualties which the LSSAH and the SS-VT units had sustained in combat.
In early 1940 the LSSAH was expanded into a full independent motorized infantry regiment and a Sturmgeschutz (Assault Gun) battery was added to their establishment. The regiment was shifted to the Dutch border for the launch of Fall Gelb, and was to form the vanguard of the ground advance into the Netherlands, tasked with capturing a vital bridge over the IJssel and linking up with the Fallschirmjäger of Generaloberst Kurt Student's airborne forces, the 7.Flieger-Division and the 22.Luftlande-Infanterie-Division.
The invasion of France and the Netherlands was launched on 10 May 1940. On that day, the LSSAH crossed the Dutch border covered over 75 kilometres (47 mi), securing a crossing over the IJssel near Zutphen after discovering that their target bridge had been destroyed. Over the next four days' fighting, the LSSAH covered over 215 kilometres (134 mi), and earned itself dubious fame by accidentally shooting at and seriously wounding Generaloberst Student at Rotterdam. After the surrender of the Netherlands on 14 May, the regiment was used to form part of the reserve for Army Group B.
After the British armoured counterattack at Arras, the LSSAH, along with the SS-Verfügungs-Division was moved to the front lines to hold the perimeter around Dunkirk and reduce the size of the pocket containing the encircled British Expeditionary Force and French forces. Near Wormhoudt, the LSSAH ignored Hitler's orders for the advance to halt and continued the attack, suppressing the British artillery positions on the Wattenberg Heights. During this battle the regiment suffered heavy casualties.
After the attack, elements of LSSAH's II.Battalion, under the command of SS-Hauptsturmführer Wilhelm Mohnke, were mistakenly informed that their divisional commander Sepp Dietrich had been killed in the fighting. In what is known as the Wormhoudt massacre, about 80 British POWs of 2nd Battalion of the Royal Warwickshire Regiment were murdered in retaliation for the supposed death of Dietrich. Although it is unarguable that the massacre occurred, Mohnke's level of involvement is impossible to know, and as such he was never brought to trial to face the allegations.
1st SS Division Brigade status-Balkans.
After the conclusion of the Western campaign, the LSSAH was expanded to brigade size. Despite this, it retained the designation 'regiment'. A Flak battalion and a StuG Batterie were among the formations added to the LSSAH. During the later months of 1940, the regiment trained in amphibious assaults in preparation for Operation Seelöwe. After the failure of the Battle of Britain and the cancellation of the operation, the LSSAH was shifted to Bulgaria in preparation for Operation Marita, part of the planned invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia.
The operation was launched on April 6 1941. The LSSAH was to follow the route of the 9.Panzer-Division, part of General der Panzertruppen Georg Stumme's XL Panzer Corps. The regiment crossed the border near Prilep and was soon deep in Greek territory.
The LSSAH captured Vevi on April 10. Sturmbannführer Kurt Meyer's reinforced Aufklärungs-Abt LSSAH was tasked with clearing resistance from the Kleisoura Pass, south-west of Vevi and driving through to the Kastoria area to cut off retreating Greek and British Commonwealth forces. Resistance from the Greek 20th Division was fierce. According to some accounts, the SS were inspired to capture the Kleisoura Pass only after Meyer threw a grenade at the feet of some of his soldiers.
Sturmbannführer Fritz Witt's I.Battalion was tasked with clearing the Klidi Pass, just south of Vevi and strongly defended by Australian, British and New Zealand troops. Witt's Battalion was reinforced and renamed Kampfgruppe Witt. An Australian officer wrote of the Germans' "insolence" in driving "trucks down the main road - to within 3,000 yards (2,700 m) of our infantry" and there unloading the SS troops.
The Germans were forced off the road and faced fierce resistance for more than two days. On the morning of April 12, the Germans launched a frontal assault, and by late afternoon the pass was cleared.
With the fall of the two passes, the main line of resistance of the Greek First Army was broken, and the campaign became a battle to prevent the escape of the enemy. On April 20, following a pitched battle in the 5,000-foot (1,500 m)-high Metsovon Pass in the Pindus Mountains, the commander of the Greek First Army surrendered the entire Hellenic Army to Dietrich. British Commonwealth troops were now the only Allied forces remaining in Greece, and they were falling back across the Corinth Canal to the Peloponnesos. By April 26, the LSSAH had reached the Gulf of Patras, and in an effort to cut off the retreating British Commonwealth forces, Dietrich ordered that his regiment cross the Gulf and secure the town of Patras in the Peloponnesos. Since no transport vessels were available, the LSSAH commandeered fishing boats and successfully completed the crossing, despite being forced to leave much of their heavy equipment behind. By April 30, the last British Commonwealth troops had either been captured or escaped. The LSSAH occupied a position of honour in the victory parade through Athens.
Following Operation Marita, the LSSAH was ordered north, to join the forces of Army Group South massing for the launch of Operation Barbarossa
1st SS Division status and Operation Barbarossa.
Following Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler's outstanding performance during Marita, Himmler ordered that it should be upgraded to divisional status. As such, the regiment, already the size of a reinforced brigade, was redesignated SS-Division (mot.) Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler. Despite this, there was no time to refit the division to full divisional status before the launch of Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, and so the new 'Division' remained the size of a reinforced brigade.
The LSSAH was attached to the LIV.Armee-Korps and held in reserve during the opening stages of the attack. In August, it was transferred to III.Panzer-Korps, part of Generalfeldmarschall Ewald von Kleist's Panzergruppe 1. During this time, the LSSAH was involved in the Battle of Uman and the subsequent capture of Kiev. During this time, the division was involved in heavy fighting, with Meyer's Abteilung particularly distinguishing itself. After finding 6 dead members of the division in Taganrog the Division murdered 4,000 Soviet prisoners in reprisal.
In early September, the division was transferred back to LIV.Armee-Korps, preparing to launch an offensive to clear the Crimean peninsula. The operation was launched on 17 September 1941. The LSSAH was involved in heavy fighting for the town of Perekop, before advancing across the Perekop Isthmus to assault the Soviet defensive positions near the Tartar Ditch.
In November, the LSSAH was transferred back to Panzergruppe 1 and took part in the heavy fighting for the city of Rostov-on-Don, which was captured in late November. During Operation Barbarossa, the division had penetrated 960 kilometers into Soviet territory.
Heavy Soviet counterattacks during the winter meant that Army Group South had to fall back from Rostov-on-Don to defensive lines on the river Mius. The LSSAH spent the winter fighting ferocious defensive battles in temperatures of down to -40°C, with minimal winter clothing and only 150 grams of rations per man per day. Despite this, the division held. After the spring rasputitsa had cleared, the exhausted division joined in Fall Blau, partaking in the fighting to retake Rostov-on-Don, which was recaptured in late July, 1942. Severely understrength and completely exhausted, the LSSAH was pulled out of the line. The division was ordered to the Normandy region of occupied France to join the newly formed SS-Panzer-Korps and to be reformed as a Panzergrenadier division.
1st SS Division Kharkov.
The Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler spent the remainder of 1942 refitting as a panzergrenadier division. Thanks to the efforts of the Heinrich Himmler Reichsführer-SS, along with SS-Obergruppenführer Paul Hausser, the SS Panzer Corps commander, the four SS Panzer Grenadier divisions (LSSAH, Wiking, Das Reich and Totenkopf were to be formed with a full regiment of tanks rather than only a Battalion. This meant that the SS Panzer Grenadier divisions were full-strength Panzer divisions in all but name. Also, the division received nine Tiger 1 tanks, and these were formed into 13.(schwere)Company/1st SS Panzer Regiment. The collapse of the front around Stalingrad and the encirclement of the German Sixth Army meant that the entire Eastern Front was close to collapse. General Feldmarschall Erich von Manstein, commander of Army Group Don, requested reinforcements to halt the Soviet attack near Kharkov. The SS Panzer Corps was ordered east to join Manstein's forces.
Arriving at the front in late January 1943, the LSSAH was thrown into the line defending Kharkov itself as a part of Hausser's SS Panzer Corps. Facing them were the hundreds of T-34s of Mobile Group Popov, a Soviet armoured Army sized formation which formed the spearhead of the Soviet advance. On 8-9 February, 1943, the LSSAH's 1st SS Panzer Grenadier Regiment under SS-Sturmbannführer Fritz Witt, fighting alongside SS-Sturmbannführer Max Wünsche's I/1st SS Panzer Regiment, fought a bitter delaying action near the town of Merefa, halting a major Soviet attack. The division fought in many desperate defensive battles over the next few weeks, gradually being pushed back into the city of Kharkov itself.
Despite inflicting heavy losses on the Soviets, and rebuffing all enemy attacks, the Soviets succeeded in outflanking the corps. On 15 February, Hausser ignored Hitler's orders to hold the city at all costs and ordered the SS-Panzer-Korps to abandon the city and withdraw towards Krasnograd. Over the next week, the SS-Panzer-Korps annihilated Mobile Group Popov in a series of hard fought battles. The LSSAH was a major participant in these battles, destroying several Soviet divisions and inflicting heavy losses.
Hausser now ordered that Kharkov should be recaptured. The LSSAH, Das Reich and Totenkopf were to form the spearhead of the attack. The attack got underway on 2 March. The LSSAH was formed into three Kampfgruppen which would attack towards and capture Kharkov. Over the next weeks, the LSSAH would take part in the battles to take the city. Kampfgruppe Meyer, under Panzermeyer's command, penetrated to Red Square before being cut off. Kampfgruppe Witt saw heavy fighting against a Soviet blocking force near Dergatschi before it also broke through into the city.
Both Kampfgruppen were repeatedly cut off during the confused fighting, and it was not until Kampfgruppe Peiper, under Joachim Peiper, broke through that the defenders were finally overwhelmed. By 21 March, the battle was over and Kharkov was back in German hands, with Peiper's Kampfgruppe having penetrated as far as Belgorod.
In honour of the 4,500 casualties suffered by the Leibstandarte in the fighting, Kharkov's Red Square was renamed Platz der Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler by the Germans. The division was pulled back for much needed rest and refit.
One major change in the LSSAH now occurred their commander Sepp Dietrich after ten years in command was promoted to form a new Corps the 1st SS Panzer Corps Leibstandarte and the LSSAH was to supply all the senior officers for the new headquarters. At the same time a new SS division would be formed from members of the Hitler Youth and the LSSAH would supply all of the Regimental, Battalion and most of the Company commanders. In time this new division would become the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend
1st SS Division Kursk.
The spring rasputitsa halted offensive operations, giving the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler time to rest and refit. By early June 1943, the division had been fully refitted and now under the command of Brigadeführer, Theodor Wisch. Its armour strength was 12 Tiger Is, 72 Panzer IVs, 16 Panzer III and Panzer IIs, and 31 StuGs. In late June 1943, the formation of 1st SS Panzer Corps meant that Hausser's SS Panzer Corps was renamed 2nd SS Panzer Corps.
The 2nd SS Panzer Corps was moved north to Belgorod in preparation for the upcoming Summer offensive, Operation Citadel. The LSSAH, along with the Totenkopf and Das Reich, was to form the spearhead of Generaloberst Hoth's 4.Panzer-Armee, tasked with breaching the southern flank of the Kursk salient. Generalfeldmarschall Walter Model's 9.Armee was to breach the northern flank, and the two forces were to meet near the city of Kursk, thereby encircling a large Soviet force.
The 2nd SS Panzer Corps reached its assembly areas on 28 June and began preparing for the assault. The attack was set for 5 July, and on 4 July the 2nd SS Panzer Corps, as well as the XLVIII.Panzerkorps on its left and the III Panzer Corps on the right, began minor attacks to secure observation posts. Fighting lasted throughout the day, with the LSSAH Pionier-Bataillon seeing heavy action clearing out the entrenched Soviets.
The LSSAH panzers, advancing in Panzerkeils, soon ran into the Soviet Pakfronts. The elaborate system of Soviet defences slowed the attack, but unlike in Model's sector, the 4.Panzer-Armee, spearheaded by the SS Panzer Corps and the LSSAH, was not halted, and eventually broke through.
By 9 July, the SS Panzer Corps had advanced 30 miles (48 km) north, and were nearing the small town of Prokhorovka. The LSSAH again took the lead, by now its armour strength reduced to just 77 armoured vehicles. 2nd SS Panzer Grenadier Regiment, supported by several panzers, advanced straight up the road to Prokhorovka against heavy resistance. By midday, the grenadiers had cleared the Komsomolets State Farm and the began the attack on Hill 241.6, which they secured shortly after nightfall on 10 July.
On 11 July, the advance resumed. With the division capturing Oktiabr'skii State Farm and Hill 252.2 in heavy fighting against Soviet Paratroops of the 9th Guards Airborne Division. On 12 July, the Soviets threw the 5th Guards Tank Army into a counterattack near Prokhorovka. Two tank corps faced the LSSAH hitting the advancing Germans around Oktiabr'skii State Farm and Hill 252.2. In the ensuing fighting, the outnumbered Germans inflicted heavy casualties on the Soviets, knocking out many tanks. In the process, the LSSAH also suffered relatively light casualties, however the Soviet counterattack had stalled the German advance, and the division was forced to fall back to Oktiabr'skii. Fighting continued on the 13 July, but the focus of the Soviet attack had shifted to the Totenkopf, to the left of the LSSAH.
With the Battle of Prokhorovka still in the balance, a massive Soviet counteroffensive near Orel, caused Hitler to order the cancellation of Citadel. The SS Panzer Corps was pulled back. LSSAH was ordered out of the line having suffered 2,753 casualties including 474 killed. The Division was then sent to Italy to help stabilise the situation caused by the deposal of Benito Mussolini by the Badoglio Government and the Allied Landings in Sicily on 10 July. The division left its armour and equipment, which was given to Das Reich and Totenkopf, and entrained for the trip to Italy.
1st SS Division Italy.
The division travelled back from the front, stopping at Innsbruck in Austria, where it disembarked. The division was re-equipped with vehicles and continued the journey by road, travelling across the Alps and into Northern Italy. The division arrived on the Po River Plain on 8 August 1943.
The Leibstandarte was given the task of guarding several vital road and rail junctions in the area of Trento-Verona. After several weeks operating in this area, the division was moved to the Parma-Reggio area. During this period, the Leibstandarte was involved in several skirmishes with partisans. With the Italian collapse of 8 September 1943, the division was ordered to begin disarming nearby Italian units. This went smoothly, with the exception of a brief skirmish with Italian troops stationed in Parma on 9 September. By 19 September, all Italian forces in the Po River Plain had been disarmed, but OKW was concerned by reports that elements of the Italian Fourteenth Army were regrouping in Piedmont, near the French border. Sturmbannführer Peiper's mechanised III/2nd SS Panzer Grenadier Regiment was sent to disarm these units. Upon arriving in the Province of Cuneo, Peiper was met by an Italian officer who warned that his forces would attack unless Peiper's unit vacated the province immediately. Peiper refused, which goaded the Italians into attacking. The veterans of Peiper's battalion defeated the Italians in a fierce battle, and then proceeded to disarm the remaining Italian forces in the area.
Following the disintegration and capitulation of Italy, the activities of partisan groups increased all across the area. The Leibstandarte was sent to the Istria Peninsula and was engaged in several major anti-partisan operations. During its period in Italy, the Leibstandarte was reformed as a full panzer division, and redesignated 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler. In early November, the deteriorating situation in the east meant that the division was ordered back to the Russian Front, arriving in the Zhitomir area in mid November
1st SS Division Eastern front.
The division was posted to XLVIII.Panzer-Korps, a part of 4.Panzer-Armee, which was struggling to hold the line near Zhitomir. The division was broken up into several Kampfgruppe and thrown into action. On 18 November, Kampfgruppe Frey halted the advance of the Fifth Guards Tank Army near the town of Kotscherovo. Over the next two months, the division's Kampfgruppen saw very heavy fighting in the Shitomir area, performing fire-brigade actions and enabling XLVIII.Panzer Corps to hold the line.
In January 1944, one of the Leibstandarte's 101 SS Heavy Panzer Battalion Tiger commanders, Michael Wittmann, was awarded the Oakleaves to the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for his actions in halting the attack of an entire Soviet armoured brigade. The division was transferred to the Cherkassy area at the end of January, where it was assigned to German III Panzer Corps, a part of German First Panzer Army.
When the 56,000 men of Gruppe Stemmermann were trapped in the Korsun Pocket in February 1944, the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, along with the remainder of III.Panzer Corps and German XLVII Panzer Corps were ordered to attempt to break the Soviet cordon and rescue the trapped forces. Hitler intervened, and ordered the relief attempt be transformed into an impossible attempt to counter-encircle two Soviet fronts. The LSSAH, along army panzer units including Oberstleutnant Dr. Franz Bäke's German 503rd Heavy Panzer Detachment spearheaded the attack. Despite initial gains, the attack soon stalled due to a combination of the resistance of four Soviet tank corps and the thick mud of the rasputitsa. The exhausted Germans managed to reach the Gniloy Tikich River, where a small bridgehead was established. The survivors of the encirclement fought their way through to the bridgehead and by late February the battle was over.
The majority of the LSSAH which amounted to 41 officers and 1,188 men was withdrawn to Belgium for rest and refit, however a Kampfgruppe was left behind. On 22 March, the entire 1.Panzer Army was encircled in the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket. The LSSAH Kampfgruppe took part in the desperate fighting to escape the encirclement, forming a part of the spearhead which linked up with the 2nd SS Panzer Corps near Buczacz on 6 April, 1944. The shattered remnant of the Kampfgruppe was ordered to Belgium where it was to rest, refit and rejoin the remainder of the division. The new LSSAH Division was reformed in Belgium and at full strength by 25 April.
1st SS Division Western Front Normandy.
It was again part of the 1st SS Panzer Corps which at this time consisted of the 101 SS Heavy Panzer Battalion, 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend, 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen and the Panzer Lehr Division. The Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler had been positioned north of the River Seine to counter any possible landing in the Pas de Calais so the first units did not arrive in Normandy until the night of the 27- 28 June with the whole division taking another week to arrive. By 4 July the 1st SS Panzer Corps was reformed and now consisted of the SS Divisions bearing Hitler's name 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler and the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend. The first action they were involved in was the defence of Carpiquet village and aerodrome in what was known to the Allies as Operation Windsor. Next followed a number of Allied attacks Operation Charnwood and Operation Jupiter and on 12 July the LSSAH were in charge of the Caen south sector from Maltot in the west to the Caen - Falaise road in the east. During the night 14 - 15 July LSSAH was relieved by the 272nd Infantry Division and pulled back to a concentration area astride the Caen - Falaise road between Ifs and Cintheaux.
1st SS Division Operation Goodwood.
The Division strength prior to Goodwood was reported as fifty nine Panzer IV, forty six Panther and thirty five Stug.
Operation Goodwood launched 18 July, pitted three British armoured divisions, with infantry support on their flanks. They were to swing through the gap between Caen and the eastern heights. There they would have to get across the hills at Bourguébus and break through towards open ground. The operation was preceded by a three hour bombing assault by 2,500 aircraft.
Immediately afterwards the British tanks came rumbling on and seized all their primary objectives. II/1st SS Panzer Regiment, located by the woods near Garcelles, received orders to attack the British at Soliers. SS-Obersturmführer Malkomes drove in the direction of Bourguébus with his 13 Panthers and discovered 60 British tanks South South East of the town. He attacked them, destroying 20, and capturing Soliers. Around 12:00 hours the Panther Battalion, I/1st SS Panzer regiment, was engaged in combat with the British 29th Armoured Brigade of the British 11th Armoured Division. The body of the Leibstandarte was rushed to the front from Falaise, where it was being held in reserve. Counterattacked immediately at 17:00, together with the 21st Panzer Division, they halted the British offensive on the left front.
At first, 19 July seemed to bring an end to Operation Goodwood, as only some individual tank assaults were carried out. But by 13:00 the British charged again, having brought up reinforcements to continue the attack. They quickly overran the forward German units and pressed on hard, a wave of tanks spearheading the attack. But when the leading Sherman/Fireflies and Cromwells approached Bourguébus Ridge at 16:00 hours, they came under fire and were blown up; the Panthers of the Leibstandarte had taken up positions on the hill itself. Around 15:00 hours the first of the 12th SS Panzer Division arrived, which relieved the right flank. The Canadians next attack was the Battle of Verrières Ridge and Operation Spring (see map), where the LSSAH came up against a number of allied divisions including the Guards Armoured Division, 7th Armoured, 2nd Canadian and the 3rd Canadian.
Operation Bluecoat was next this time the LSSAH was up against the British and the 11th Armoured Division.
1st SS Division Operation Lüttich.
On July 25 1944, following six weeks of attritional warfare along a stalemated front, American forces under General Omar Bradley succeeded in breaking through German defenses as part of Operation Cobra. On August 1, American forces captured Avranches. Simultaneously, General George Patton's Third United States Army was activated. With the capture of Avranches, American forces were able to "turn the corner" of Normandy, pushing through into Brittany and the coastal ports. As a result, German defensive operations could no longer be anchored against the coast on both flanks. By August 4, seven divisions of the 3rd US Army had entered Brittany.
With the American breakthrough, in spite of this costly victory, the Allied forces remained vastly superior in numbers. Five days later the Americans saw the chance to break out of their beachhead. The weakened German defense could not keep up with the savage battle of attrition as little or no reinforcements had arrived, supplies were shot up, and movement by day was made impossible. They stormed into the open, one column headed towards Avranches, and another column making an encircling movement towards St. Lô. Hitler however forbade any retreat and, instead, ordered an assault to be made. According to Hitler, three qualifications had to be met for the attack to proceed. "Von Kluge must believe in it. He must be able to detach enough armour from the main front in Normandy to create an effective striking force, and he must achieve surprise". For his counteroffensive, Von Kluge would have the XLVII Panzer Corps, comprising the 2nd Panzer Division, part of the 1st SS Panzer Division, the 2nd SS Panzer Division and the 116th Panzer Division. The Panzer Korps was supported by two Infantry Divisions and five Kampfgruppen, formed from the remnants of the Panzer Lehr Division and four equally battered infantry divisions. Although Hitler promised more reinforcements, von Kluge was skeptical of the chance of their arrival. Aware of the increasing number of American troops moving to his south-creating the potential of being outflanked-von Kluge elected to begin the offensive earlier than originally planned, with the attack commencing at midnight on August 6 1944.
To avoid alerting American forces to the imminence of a German attack, Operation Lüttich would not use artillery bombardments to precede the attack. The initial attacks, comprising some 300 tanks, would hit the US 30th Infantry Division, under the command of Major-General Leland S. Hobbs, east of Mortain, then cut through American defenses to reach the coast. Had surprise been achieved, the attack likely would have succeeded. However, Allied-decoders at Ultra had intercepted the codes for Operation Lüttich by August 4. As a result, General Omar Bradley was able to obtain air support from both the US 9th Air Force and the RAF.
LSSAH, together with the other Divisions went on the attack on 7 August after moving to the assembly areas on 5 and 6 August. The 1st SS Panzer regiment along with two Panzer Grenadier Battalionss, one Pionier Compamy and the Flak Battalion, were used. The weather wasn't suited for flying that morning, which only disadvantaged the Allies. That is why the attack went smoothly at first, despite the fact that the Allies knew the attack was coming. 2nd SS Division Das Reich managed to recapture Mortain, and an armoured Kampfgruppe under Joachim Peiper managed to go as far as Bourlopin, but was stopped by massive swarms of Allied aircraft. Another attempt was mounted the next day, but failed.
A report from SS-Obersturmführer Preuss, 10.Co/2nd SS Panzer Grenadier Regiment describes the impossible situation:
This marked the end of the campaign in Normandy; Leibstandarte got encircled by the Americans and Canadians supported by the 1st Polish Armoured Division in what would be called the Falaise pocket, but by then the unit was reduced to several small Kampfgruppen. Leibstandarte withdrew from the pocket with Unterführers and Führers each taking the lead of a small Kampfgruppe and smashing through the ring, on 22 August, after which no combat ready tanks or artillery pieces were reported. The whole campaign caused some 5,000 casualties to the LSSAH.
1st SS Division Ardennes Offensive.
The Ardennes Offensive (16 December 1944 - 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive launched towards the end of World War II through the forested Ardennes Mountains region of Belgium, France and Luxembourg on the Western Front. The offensive was called Unternehmen Wacht am Rhein (Translated as Operation The Guard on the Rhine or Operation "Watch on the Rhine.") by the German armed forces. The "bulge" was the initial incursion the Germans put into the Allies’ line of advance, as seen in maps presented in contemporary newspapers.
1st SS Division Wacht am Rhein.
Operation Wacht am Rhein was the final major offensive and last gamble Hitler was to make. Wilhelm Mohnke, now in command of the 1st SS Division Adolf Hitler, was to lead his formation as the spearhead of the entire operation in the Ardennes. Attached to the I SS Panzer Corps, the LSSAH-once one of the most elite and highly trained units in the entire German military-was now just a shadow of its former self. The large numbers of casualties sustained by the LSSAH meant that it had been reinforced with extremely young soldiers who had received only brief training before they were sent to the front. Moreover, the crisis in the Reich meant that the LSSAH had dangerously low amounts of fuel for the vehicles that they depended on to make the division a viable fighting force. There was one major factor that enabled Mohnke to lead his dwindling division into one of the most famous battle: the officer corps under Mohnke consisted of battle-hardened and experienced veterans. On 16 December 1944 the operation began, with Mohnke designating his best colonel, Standartenführer Joachim Peiper, and his regiment to lead the push to Antwerp.
In the north, the main armored spearhead of the Sixth SS Panzer Army was Kampfgruppe Peiper, consisting of 4,800 men and 600 vehicles of the 1st SS Panzer Division under the command of Joachim Peiper. Bypassing the Elsenborn ridge, at 07:00 on 17 December, they seized a U.S. fuel depot at Büllingen, where they paused to refuel before continuing westward. At 12:30, near the hamlet of Baugnez, on the height halfway between the town of Malmedy and Ligneuville, they encountered elements of the 285th Field Artillery Observation Battalion, U.S. 7th Armored Division. After a brief battle the Americans surrendered. They were disarmed and, with some other Americans captured earlier (approximately 150 men), sent to stand in a field near the crossroads where most were shot. It is not known what caused the shooting and there is no record of an SS officer giving an execution order; such shootings of prisoners of war (POWs), however, were common by both sides on the Eastern Front. News of the killings raced through Allied lines. Captured SS soldiers who were part of Kampfgruppe Peiper were tried following the war for this massacre and several others during the Malmedy massacre trial.
Peiper entered Stavelot on 18 December but encountered fierce resistance from the American defenders. Unable to defeat them, he left a smaller support force in town and headed for the bridge at Trois-Ponts with the bulk of his strength, but by the time he reached it, retreating U.S. engineers had already destroyed it. Peiper pulled off and headed for the village of La Gleize and from there on to Stoumont. There, as Peiper approached, engineers blew up the bridge, and the American troops were entrenched and ready. Peiper's troops were cut off from the main German force and supplies when the Americans recaptured the poorly defended Stavelot on 19 December. As their situation in Stoumont was becoming hopeless, Peiper decided to pull back to La Gleize where he set up his defences waiting for the German relief force. Since no relief force was able to penetrate the Allied line, on 23 December Peiper decided to break through back to the German lines. The men of the Kampfgruppe were forced to abandon their vehicles and heavy equipment, although most of the unit was able to escape.
With each passing day, enemy resistance stiffened and the advance was eventually halted on all fronts. Desperate to keep the assault going, the German High Command ordered that a renewed attack begin on 1 January 1945. Yet this time, the Allies had regrouped their forces and were ready to repulse any attacks launched by the Germans. The operation formally ended on 27 January 1945, and three days later Mohnke was promoted to SS-Brigadeführer. A short while later LSSAH and the 'I SS Panzer Korps' were transferred to Hungary to bolster the crumbling situation there. Mohnke was injured in an air raid where he suffered, among other things, ear damage. He was removed from front-line service and put on the Führer reserve. In his place, SS-Brigadeführer Otto Kumm was appointed the new Division Commander as of February 15, 1945.
1st SS Division Eastern Front 1945.
Operation Spring Awakening (Frühlingserwachen) (6 March 1945 - 16 March 1945) was the last major German offensive launched during World War II and was an offensive launched by the Germans in great secrecy on 6 March 1945. The Germans launched attacks in Hungary near the Lake Balaton area on the Eastern Front. This area included some of the last oil reserves still available to the Germans. The Operation involved many German units withdrawn from the failed Ardennes Offensive on the Western Front including the 6th SS Panzer Army and the LSSAH. Almost inevitably, Operation Spring Awakening was a failure for the German Army. Despite early gains, the operation was a perfect example of Hitler's increasingly poor military judgement toward the end of the war. Its chief flaw was that the offensive was far too ambitious in scope.
After the failure of Operation Spring Awakening, Sepp Dietrich's 6th SS Panzer Army retreated in stages to the Vienna area. The Germans desperately prepared defensive positions in an attempt to guard the city against the fast arriving Soviets, in what become known as the Vienna Offensive.
1st SS Division armband order.
This debacle is famous for the notorious Armelstreifen (Cuff Titles Order) or "armband order" which followed. The order was issued by Adolf Hitler to the commander of German 6th SS Panzer Army, Sepp Dietrich. It was issued when it was evident that the 6th SS Panzer Army and, more importantly, the Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler Division had failed him. Although one must remember this so-called failure was in the face of superior forces of the Soviet Army. Hitler claimed that the troops "did not fight as the situation demanded." As a mark of disgrace, the units involved were ordered to remove their "Adolf Hitler" cuff titles (German: Armbänder). In the field Sepp Dietrich was disgusted by Hitler's order. Dietrich told Obersturmbannführer Maier that the armbands "...would stay on." Further that the telegram was not to be passed on to the troops. A myth arose that a pile of medals was returned in a chamber pot to Hitler, in the same manner as found in the Goethe play Götz von Berlichingen. In actuality, most organisational cuff titles had already been removed as a security measure.
The Final days of the 1st SS Division.
After Vienna the LSSAH was recorded by the German Army High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW), from April 20 to May 2, to have moved from Zossen (near Berlin) to the area of Mürwik (part of Flensburg in northern Germany, near Denmark), where they surrendered to the advancing British forces.
The rest of the LSSAH ended its days fighting in Berlin. On April 23, 1945, Brigadeführer Mohnke was appointed by Hitler the Battle Commander for the centre government quarter/district (Zitadelle sector) that included the Reich Chancellery and Führerbunker. Mohnke's command post was under the Reich Chancellery in the bunkers therein. The core group of his fighting men were the 800 of the Leibstandarte (LSSAH) Guard Battalion (assigned to guard the Führer). After Hitler's suicide, a break out was ordered. Prior to the break out Mohnke briefed all commanders (who could be reached) within the Zitadelle sector about the events as to Hitler's death and the planned break out. The break out started at 2300 hours on May 1. It was a "fateful moment" for Brigadeführer Mohnke as he made his way out of the Reich Chancellery. He had been the first duty officer of the LSSAH at the building and now was leaving as the last battle commander there. He led the first of ten main groups and attempted to head northwest towards Mecklenburg. Several very small groups managed to reach the Americans at the Elbe's west bank, but most including Mohnke's group could not make it through the Soviet rings. Many were taken prisoner and some committed suicide. On 2 May hostilities officially ended by order of Helmuth Weidling, Kommandant of the Defense Area Berlin
1st SS Division lineage of the unit.
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