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Philosophy deals with matters of the mind.


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Philosophy concerns itself with what is the best way to live. Philosophy also deals with (ethics), what sorts of things really exist and what are their true natures (metaphysics). Philosophy asks what is to count as genuine knowledge (epistemology), and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic).

philosopher Socrates.
The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court.

The word philosophy itself is derived from the Ancient Greek a (philosophía: love of wisdom), compounded from (phílos: friend, or lover) and (sophía: wisdom).

Any definition of philosophy will be fairly controversial. This is because the definition of philosophy is itself a philosophical subject. It is generally agreed to be a method, rather than a set of claims, propositions or theories. Its investigations are, unlike those of astrology, religion, etc., wedded to reason, making no unexamined assumptions, no leaps based purely on analogy, revelation or authority. But there is disagreement about the subject matter of philosophy. Some think that philosophy examines the process of enquiry itself. Others, that there are essentially philosophical propositions which it is the task of philosophy to prove. Still others argue that philosophy is continuous with the best practices in every intellectual field. The situation is made more complicated because contemporary Western philosophy is divided into continental and analytic traditions.

Although the word "philosophy" originates in the Western tradition, many figures in the history of the East have addressed similar topics in similar ways. These inquiries are described as Eastern philosophy

Western Philosophy.

There is no consensus concerning which subjects form the main branches of philosophy. There is wide agreement that philosophy includes the disciplines of metaphysics, ethics, epistemology, and logic. However, while some would place all other subfields of philosophy in one of those categories (e.g., political philosophy may be considered an application of ethics), others disagree. In The Story of Philosophy, Will Durant lists logic, aesthetics, ethics, politics, and metaphysics as the major divisions of the field. There are places where these subjects overlap (as, for example, in metaphysics and epistemology, where reality and our knowledge of reality are sometimes difficult to separate), and there are philosophical ideas that cannot be placed neatly into exactly one of these categories (such as value, which may pertain to ethics, aesthetics, or logic).

Each branch has its own particular questions. Logic asks: How do we distinguish arguments from premises to conclusions as valid or invalid? How can we know that a statement is true or false? What kinds of questions can we answer? Aesthetics asks: What is beauty? What is art? Ethics asks: What are values? Why do people need them? Are values absolute or relative? Is there a difference between morally right and wrong actions, values, or institutions? Which actions are right and which are wrong? What is happiness? Is there a normative value on which all other values depend? Are values 'in' the world (like tables and chairs) and if not, how should we understand their ontological status? Political philosophy asks: How should people interact in society? What is law? What is government? Do people need law and government? What is justice? What is freedom in the political context? What is the nature of production and trade? How do they function within the various forms of government? Metaphysics asks: What is reality? What exists? Do things exist independently of perception? (See Solipsism, the idea that only perception exists.) Epistemology asks: How do we know what we know? What can we know?

Philosophy of Language and Philosophy of Mind are particularly popular topics in philosophy today. More and more the study of the history of philosophy is considered an important area of philosophy itself. Outside these broad categories are there other areas of inquiry that could be construed as philosophy.

The Identity of Philosophy.

What should, and what should not, be counted as philosophy - and who counts as a philosopher - has been heavily debated in the Western tradition. Historically, philosophy has been associated with certain subjects (mentioned above). Still, the search continues for a pattern which unites the disparate philosophical activities and interests of those who study those subjects. A handful of candidate explanations can nevertheless be assembled. Several philosophers or philosophical directions have had ideas about what philosophy is and what it should not be.

The very open-minded nature of philosophy makes many people skeptical when it comes to limiting the concept of philosophy to something tangible. Accordingly, metaphilosophical relativists may claim that any statement can be counted as a philosophical statement, as there is no objective way to disqualify it of being so.

Some theorists adopt the stance that any given philosophy is merely a reflection of the way that a person is socially embedded in a certain culture. To put it in Hegel's terms, "Philosophy is that which grasps its own era in thought."

Plato, or the protagonist in his dialogues, Socrates, held up a number of virtues for philosophers. One such virtue was the feeling of wonder at the world. Amongst other things, Plato rejected that rhetorics had a place in philosophy (most famously in Gorgias). Along similar lines, Berkeley claimed that philosophy was nothing other than the study of wisdom and truth. And still other virtues can be culled from the literature. Those inspired by Karl Marx's famous critique of philosophers in Theses on Feuerbach have made a virtue of the critical nature of philosophical thought, as a means toward healthy social criticism and praxis.

"The point of philosophy is to start with something so simple as to seem not worth stating, and to end with something so paradoxical that no one will believe it."
Bertrand Russell

(quoted by John D. Barrow, Pi in the Sky, 1992, p. 188).

Many views have tried to deflate what goes on in one or another part of philosophy. The logical positivists denied the soundness of metaphysics and traditional philosophy, and affirmed that statements about metaphysics, religion and ethics are devoid of cognitive meaning and thus nothing but expression of feelings or desires. Another example is that of Nietzsche, who argued that philosophers "are not honest enough in their work, although they make a lot of virtuous noise when the problem of truthfulness is touched even remotely. They all pose as if they had discovered and reached their real opinions through the self-development of a cold, pure, divinely unconcerned dialectic...; while at bottom it is an assumption, a hunch, indeed a kind of "inspiration"-most often a desire of the heart that has been filtered and made abstract-that they defend with reasons they have sought after the fact. Others, like Francis Bacon, have argued that philosophy contributes nothing, but is merely an echo of nature.

Still, positive conceptions of philosophy are not hard to find. What constitutes sound philosophical work is sometimes summed up by the term Philosophical method. Some philosophers have explained that philosophy is the pursuit and demarcation of the limits and powers of human reasoning. Also, it is often agreed upon that arguments should try to follow the rules of logic and avoid fallacies. It has also been argued that the scientific method should be followed as closely as the subject-matter allows. If a branch of philosophy at some point fully can start following the norms of the scientific method, it is no longer termed philosophy, but science.

Disparaging terms have been created in order to provide examples of non-philosophers and non-philosophy. "Pseudophilosophy" is used to describe those activities which are not associated with a sensible kind of inquiry, and "philosophaster" is a term used to describe those who engage in pseudophilosophy.

History of Western philosophy.

The history of philosophy is often divided into three periods: Ancient philosophy, Medieval philosophy, and Modern philosophy. Some philosophers have argued that human civilization has passed into a new, "post-modern" period. () Others believe that there is a distinction between "Modern" philosophy and Contemporary philosophy, but there is great disagreement about the content of this difference. It is important to note that ancient Greek and Roman philosophers never thought of themselves as "Western" philosophers, and it would be historically inaccurate to claim this. () Many classical Greek texts were actually preserved in the Middle East, and forgotten and lost in the specific areas of Italy and Greece until the Renaissance. In this way, an alternative understanding of the history of philosophy is in terms of such trans-periodic traditions as Aristotelianism.

Greco-Roman philosophy.

Ancient Greek philosophy may be divided into the pre-Socratic period, the Socratic period, and the post-Aristotelian period. The pre-Socratic period was characterized by metaphysical speculation, often preserved in the form of grand, sweeping statements, such as "All is fire", or "All changes". Important pre-Socratic philosophers include Pythagoras, Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Democritus, Parmenides, and Heraclitus. The Socratic period is named in honor of the most recognizable figure in Western philosophy, Socrates, who, along with his pupil Plato, revolutionized philosophy through the use of the Socratic method, which developed the very general philosophical methods of definition, analysis, and synthesis. While Socrates wrote nothing himself, his influence as a "skeptic" survives through Plato's works. Plato's writings are often considered basic texts in philosophy as they defined the fundamental issues of philosophy for future generations. These issues and others were taken up by Aristotle, who studied at Plato's school, the Academy, and who often disagreed with what Plato had written. The subsequent period ushered in such philosophers as Euclid, Epicurus, Chrysippus, Hipparchia the Cynic, Pyrrho, and Sextus Empiricus.

St. Thomas Aquinas.
St. Thomas Aquinas.

Medieval philosophy.

The medieval period of philosophy came with the collapse of Roman civilization and the dawn of Christianity, Islam, and rabbinic Judaism. The medieval period brought Christian scholastic philosophy, with writers such as Augustine of Hippo, Boethius, Anselm, Robert Grosseteste, Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, Nicholas of Cusa, and Francisco Suárez. A female Christian philosopher of the period was a student of Abelard named Heloïse. The philosophers in the scholastic Christian tradition and philosophers in the other major Abrahamic religion, (such as the Jewish philosophers Saadia Gaon and Maimonides, and the Muslim philosophers Avicenna, Al-Ghazali, and Averroes) were each aware of the others' works. These religious traditions took on questions about the relation of man to God. The philosophy of this period is characterized by analysis of the nature and properties of God; the metaphysics involving substance, essences and accidents (that is, qualities that are respectively essential to substances possessing them or merely happening to be possessed by them), form, and divisibility; and logic and the philosophy of language.

Many of these philosophers took as their starting point the theories of Plato or Aristotle. Others, however, such as Tertullian, rejected Greek philosophy as antithetical to revelation and faith.

Modern Western philosophy.

Modern philosophy is said to begin with René Descartes. His work was greatly influenced by questioning from his correspondences with other philosophers. For example, the prodding of Pierre Gassendi and Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia obliged Descartes to try to formulate more cogent replies to the mind-body problem.

Medieval philosophy had been concerned primarily with argument from authority, and the analysis of ancient texts using Aristotelian logic. The Renaissance saw an outpouring of new ideas that questioned authority. Roger Bacon (1214-1294?) was one of the first writers to advocate putting authority to the test of experiment and reason. Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) challenged conventional ideas about morality. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) wrote in favor of the methods of science in philosophical discovery.

Schism of Analytic and Continental philosophy.

The late modern period in philosophy, beginning in the late 19th century, was marked by a schism between two divergent ways of doing philosophy: "Continental" and "Analytic". Analytic philosophy is associated mainly with English-speaking countries whereas Continental is associated with Europe.

This division begins to appear in the 1930s and coincides with a turbulent period in history when Communism, Capitalism and Nationalism vied for ideological dominance. There are a number of philosophical sources for this division. American philosopher, Babette Babich brings to our attention the politics of this divergence between Analytic philosophy and Continental philosophy:

there is a difference between analytic and continental approaches to philosophy not only because it is obvious and not only because as a professor of philosophy I live on the terms of a profession dominated by this noisome distinction but because the claim that there is no such distinctive divide is politically manipulative.

In the U.S. the Red Scare of 1917 to 1920, and McCarthyism, which lasted for about two decades after World War II created an atmosphere not conducive to Marxist scholarship. In this environment, many who were in any way discovered to be associated with, or even reading, Marxist, or Marxist related, literature, was labeled a "Communist", became suspect of his loyalty to his country, and often lost, or was unable, to acquire gainful employment. On the Continent of Europe, there were more extreme oppressions during the fascist period but then a much more open attitude after world war two.

The schism also appears as something that has been growing rather than receding in recent years, "the past three or so decades have seen an a widening of the gap by the weighing in of postmodernist thought on the Continental side"

There are many differences between the two traditions. One lies in how each tradition treats the 19th Century. While, unlike Continental philosophers, Analytic philosophers tend to ignore Hegel, Kierkegaard, Nieztsche, they instead refer to other philosophers from the 19th century. The main issue however is that the two sides of the schism remain in many respects cut-off from one another. With some exceptions, continental and analytic philosophers, in general, tend to ignore one another.

A second difference is in the overall attitude to history. Richard Rorty characterises the schism in terms of ahistoricist and historicist loyalties and commitments, stressing how Analytic philosophers understand philosophical questions as perennial while Continental philosophers see them as emerging from "the friction between old cultural inheritances and new developments"

The origin of the schism might date back as far as Kant philosophically, but the first appearance of cracks in the edifice of philosophy occurred in 1929 when Gilbert Ryle gave a negative and dismissive review in the journal Mind of Heidegger's magnus opus Being and Time.

In 1929 there was a confrontation of Heidegger and Ernst Cassirer in Davos, Switzerland. The debate was attended by the major Continental philosopher, Levinas and a major Analytic philosopher, Carnap. Levinas, who viewed Heidegger as having won out, later remarked that this confrontation showed the "end of a certain humanism." Carnap, on the other hand, sided with Cassirer. This is how Heidegger wrapped up the discussion:

What matters to me is that you, Prof. Cassirer, take with you from this debate this one thing, namely, that you may have felt somehow (and quite aside from the diversity of positions of differently philosophizing men) that once again we are on our way to take seriously the fundamental questions of metaphysics. What you have seen here, writ small, namely, the differences between philosophers within the one-ness of a problem, suggests, however modestly, what is so essential and writ large in the controversies in the history of philosophy: the realization that the discerning of its different standpoints goes to the very root of all philosophical work.

In 1930, the analytic philosopher Rudolf Carnap accused Heidegger of a "violation of logical syntax" Heidegger's language was based on a Greek rather than a mathematical understanding of logic.

According to U.S. philosopher Richard Rorty:

The schism dates back to the 1940s and 1950s, when analytic philosophy took over at American universities.

Before then, Anglophone philosophy departments -- those in the United States, and Britain -- and non-Anglophone schools -- in France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Scandinavia and other parts of Europe -- both focused on the study of philosophy from a historical perspective."

In 1971 there took place a debate between Michel Foucault and Noam Chomsky on Dutch Television. Though Chomsky is not an Analytic philosopher he is read by Analytic philosophers. It was a confrontation of Chomsk's Enlightenment humanism with the more post-modern view of Foucault. See part one of the debate here: and, part two:. Foucault questioned an ideal of justice and of human nature, that had formed in the Western power/class system, an ideal upheld by Chomsky. After the debate Chomsky commented, "I’d never met anyone so totally amoral."

In 1974 another well known event of the schism was a debate between John Searle and Jacques Derrida. Derrida had published a paper in the journal Glyph , critically considering the ordinary language philosophy of J.L. Austin. Searle, a former pupil of Austin, accused Derrida of obfuscation. Derrida replied with accusations of misreading.

More recently, in 1992 the University of Cambridge awarded an honorary doctorate to Derrida, but a number of Analytic Philosophers, including W. V. Quine, signed a letter to try to prevent the award being made.

Eastern philosophy.

Many societies have considered philosophical questions and built philosophical traditions based upon each other's works. Eastern and Middle Eastern philosophical traditions have influenced Western philosophers. Russian, Jewish, Islamic and recently Latin American philosophical traditions have contributed to, or been influenced by, Western philosophy, yet each has retained a distinctive identity.

The differences between traditions are often based on their favored historical philosophers, and varying stress on ideas, procedural styles, or written language. The subject matter and dialogues of each can be studied using methods derived from the others, and there are significant commonalities and exchanges between them.

Eastern philosophy refers to the broad traditions that originated or were popular in India, Persia, China, Japan, and to an extent, the Middle East (which overlaps with Western philosophy due to being the origin of the Abrahamic religions and the intellectual commerce between the these societies and the Greeks and Romans).

Indian philosophy.

Hindu philosophy.
Adi Shankara (centre), 788 to 820, founder of Advaita Vedanta, one of the major schools of Hindu philosophy.

Hindu philosophy constitutes an integral part of the culture of Southern Asia, and is the first of the Dharmic philosophies which were influential throughout the Far East. The great diversity in thought and practice of Hinduism is nurtured by its liberal universalism.

The origins of Hindu philosophy are to be traced in Vedic deliberations about the universe and Rta ("universal order"), the first of which was the Rig-Veda, composed in the 2nd millennium BC. Other major texts with philosophical implications include the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Brahma Sutra, from circa 1000 BCE to 500 BCE. The Indian epics Mahabharata and Ramayana also cover Indian philosophy in much depth. At about the same time, the shramana schools, including Jainism and Buddhism, also developed. It is notable that the Vedanta schools of Hindu philosophy are still living traditions today. Hinduism has no known founder or single, authoritative text .

Hindu philosophy is traditionally seen through the prism of six different systems (called darshanas in Sanskrit). The six major Astika schools of thought are the Samkhya (enumeration), Yoga (union), Nyaya (logic), Vaisheshika (atomism), Mimamsa (investigation), and Vedanta (culmination of the Vedas) schools. The Vedanta school is further divided into six sub-schools: Advaita (monism/nondualism), VisishtAdvaita (monism of the qualified whole), Dvaita (dualism), Dvaitadvaita (dualism-nondualism), Suddhadvaita, and Achintya Bheda Abheda schools.

Buddhist philosophy is a system of beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, a Nepalese prince later known as the Buddha, derived from the Sanskrit 'bud', 'to awaken'. Buddhism is a non-theistic religion, one whose tenets are not especially concerned with the existence or nonexistence of a God or gods. The Buddha himself expressly disavowed any special divine status or inspiration, and said that anyone, anywhere could achieve all the insight that he had. The question of God is largely irrelevant in Buddhism, though some sects (notably Tibetan Buddhism) do venerate a number of gods drawn in from local indigenous belief systems.

From its inception, Buddhism has had a strong philosophical component. Buddhism is founded on the rejection of certain orthodox Hindu philosophical concepts, in which the Buddha had been instructed by various teachers. Buddhism rejects atheism, theism, monism, and dualism alike. The Buddha criticized all concepts of metaphysical being and non-being, and this critique is inextricable from the founding of Buddhism.

Most Buddhist sects believe in Karma, a cause-and-effect relationship between all that has been done and all that will be done. Events that occur are held to be the direct result of previous events. One effect of karma is rebirth. At death, the karma from a given life determines the nature of the next life's existence. The ultimate goal of a Buddhist practitioner is to eliminate karma (both good and bad), end the cycle of rebirth and suffering, and attain Nirvana, usually translated as awakening or enlightenment.

Jaina philosophy, founded by Mahavira (599-527 BCE), is based upon eternal, universal truths, according to its followers. Over a period of time, these truths may lapse among humanity and then reappear through the teachings of enlightened humans, those who have reached enlightenment or total knowledge (Keval Gyan).

Anekantavada is a basic principle of Jainism positing that reality is perceived differently from different points of view, and that no single point of view is completely true. Jain doctrine states that only Kevalis, those who have infinite knowledge, can know the true answer, and that all others would only know a part of the answer. Anekantavada is related to the Western philosophical doctrine of Subjectivism.

Persian philosophy.

Philosophy.
Zarathushtra portrayed in a popular 18th century Indian Parsi Zoroastrian depiction.

The teachings of Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) appeared in Persia at some point during the period between 1000-588 BCE. His wisdom became the basis of the religion Zoroastrianism, and generally influenced the development of the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian philosophy. Zarathushtra was the first who treated the problem of evil in philosophical terms. He is also believed to be one of the oldest monotheists in the history of religion. He espoused an ethical philosophy based on the primacy of good thoughts (humata), good words (hukhata), and good deeds (hvarshatra).

Zarathushtra was known as a sage, magician and miracle-worker in post-Classical Western culture, though almost nothing was known of his ideas until the late eighteenth century. By this time his name was associated with lost ancient wisdom and was appropriated by Freemasons and other groups who claimed access to such knowledge. He appears in Mozart's opera "Die Zauberflöte" under the variant name "Sarastro", who represents moral order in opposition to the "Queen of the Night". Enlightenment writers such as Voltaire promoted research into Zoroastrianism in the belief that it was a form of rational Deism, preferable to Christianity.

In 2005, the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy ranked Zarathushtra number two in the chronology of philosophical events. Zarathushtra's impact lingers today due in part to the system of rational ethics he founded called Mazda-Yasna. The word Mazda-Yasna is avestan and is translated as "Worship of Wisdom" in English. The Greeks later used a similar word to the Iranian one - the word "philosophy" in Greek literally means "love of wisdom".

Throughout Iranian history, due to Greek and Arabic influence, a wide spectrum of schools of thoughts showed a variety of views on philosophical questions extending from Old Iranian and Zoroastrian traditions, to schools appearing in the late pre-Islamic era, to various Islamic schools. Iranian philosophy after the Arab invasion of Persia is characterized by different interactions with the Old Iranian philosophy with Greek and Islamic philosophy. The Illumination School and the Transcendent Philosophy are regarded as two of the main philosophical traditions of that era in Persia.

Manicheism, founded by Mani, was influential from North Africa in the West, to China in the East. Its influence subtly continues in Western Christian thought via Saint Augustine of Hippo, who converted to Christianity from Manichaeism, which he passionately denounced in his writings, and whose writings continue to be influential among Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox theologians. An important principle of Manicheism was its dualistic cosmology/theology, which it shared with Mazdakism, a philosophy founded by Mazdak. Under this dualism, there were two original principles of the universe: Light, the good one; and Darkness, the evil one. These two had been mixed by a cosmic accident, and man's role in this life was through good conduct to release the parts of himself that belonged to Light. Mani saw the mixture of good and bad as a cosmic tragedy, while Mazdak viewed this in a more neutral, even optimistic way.

In the Islamic era, various Persian philosophers contributed to Islamic philosophy. Al-Farabi discussed the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle elaborately. He hypothesized an "ideal state" in his work Al-Madina al-fadila. His ideas were not extreme, rather he often tried to unify many contradictory ideas. He accepted the supremacy of a creator, while admitting the absoluteness of creation. His idealized state-leader in Al-Madina al-fadila is an autocrat. This philosophy had an impact on centralizing then divided Feudal societies. He explicitly claimed that attaining ideal state is impossible, but the struggle should be encouraged.

Avicenna (Ibn Sina) wrote extensively on the subjects of philosophy, logic, ethics, metaphysics and other disciplines. Most of his works were written in Arabic, which was the de facto scientific language of that time, while some were written in Persian. Ibn Sina's commentaries on Aristotle often corrected the philosopher, encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of ijtihad. His Logic, Metaphysics, Physics, and De Caelo, are treatises giving a synoptic view of Aristotelian doctrine. The Logic and Metaphysics have been printed more than once in Europe. Some of his shorter essays on logic take a poetical form, which was also later published in Europe. He wrote two encyclopaedic treatises dealing with philosophy, known as the Al-Shifa (Sanatio in Latin) and An-najat (Liberatio in Latin). He also wrote a Philosophia Orientalis, mentioned by Roger Bacon, which according to Averroes was pantheistic in tone. Arabic philosophy flourished after Avicenna's death, emerging from Avicenna's inflammatory pronouncements on all matters within the world, whether physical or metaphysical, such as the works of the post-Avicennian Baghdadi Peripatetics and anti-Peripatetics.

Chinese philosophy.

Confucius.
Confucius, illustrated in Myths & Legends of China, 1922, by E.T.C. Werner.

Philosophy has had a tremendous effect on Chinese civilization, and East Asia as a whole. Many of the great philosophical schools were formulated during the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period, and came to be known as the Hundred Schools of Thought. The four most influential of these were Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, and Legalism. Later on, during the Tang Dynasty, Buddhism from India also became a prominent philosophical and religious discipline. (It should be noted that Eastern thought, unlike Western philosophy, did not express a clear distinction between philosophy and religion.) Like Western philosophy, Chinese philosophy covers a broad and complex range of thought, possessing a multitude of schools that address every branch and subject area of philosophy.

In China, the Tao Te Ching (Dào dé jing, in Pinyin romanisation) of Lao Tzu (Lao zi) and the Analects of Confucius (Kong fu zi; sometimes called Master Kong) both appeared around 600 BCE, about the time that the Greek pre-Socratics were writing.

Of all the Chinese philosophies, however, it is quite safe to say Confucianism has had the greatest impact throughout East Asia. Confucianism represents the collected teachings of the Chinese sage Confucius, who lived from 551 to 479 BCE. His philosophy focused in the fields of ethics and politics, emphasizing personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, traditionalism, and sincerity. Confucianism, along with Legalism, is responsible for creating the world’s first meritocracy, which holds that one's status should be determined by ability instead of ancestry, wealth, or friendships. It is arguable that Confucianism is most responsible for shaping the Chinese culture and state of China.

Throughout history, Chinese philosophy has been molded to fit the prevailing school of thought in China. The Chinese schools of philosophy, except during the Qin Dynasty, have been relatively tolerant of one another. Instead of competing, they generally have cooperated and shared ideas, which they would usually incorporate with their own. For example, Neo-Confucianism was a revived version of old Confucian principles that appeared around the Song Dynasty, with Buddhist, Taoist, and Legalist features.

During the Industrial and Modern Ages, Chinese philosophy had also began to integrate concepts of Western philosophy, as steps toward modernization. By the time of the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, there were many calls, such as the May Fourth Movement, to completely abolish the old imperial institutions and practices of China. There have been attempts to incorporate democracy, republicanism, and industrialism into Chinese philosophy, notably by Sun Yat-Sen (Sun yì xian, in one Mandarin form of the name) at the beginning of the 20th century. Mao Tse-Tung (Máo zé dong) added Marxism, Stalinism, and other communist thought. The current government of the People's Republic of China is trying to encourage a form of market socialism. Although, officially, the Communist Party of China does not encourage, and have even forbid, some of the philosophical practices of Imperial China, the influences of past are still deeply ingrained in the Chinese culture. As in Japan, philosophy in China has become a melting pot of ideas. It accepts new concepts, while attempting also to accord old beliefs their due.

Chinese philosophy has spread around the world in forms such as the so-called New Confucianism and New Age ideas (see for example Chinese traditional medicine). Many in the academic community of the West remain skeptical, and only a few assimilate Chinese philosophy into their own research, whether scientific or philosophical. However, it still carries profound influence amongst the people of East Asia, and even Southeast Asia.

African philosophy.

Other philosophical traditions, such as African philosophy, are rarely considered by foreign academia. Since emphasis is mainly placed on western philosophy as a reference point, the study, preservation and dissemination of valuable, but lesser known, non-Western philosophical works face many obstacles. Key African philosophers include the Fulani Uthman Dan Fodio, founder of the Sokoto Caliphate of Northern Nigeria and Umar Tall of Senegal; both were prolific Islamic scholars. The Kebra Negast contains not only a source of the Kings of Ethiopia but a window into African philosophy, as the text undergirds the beliefs of Ethiopian Christians and Rastafarians.

Metaphysics and epistemology (Western Philosophy).

An enduring tradition in the history of philosophy has been that of skepticism. Skepticism's most famous strain was formulated by Pyrrho, who believed that everything could be doubted except appearances.

Ancient philosopher Sextus Empiricus describes skepticism as an "ability to place in antithesis, in any manner whatever, appearances and judgements, and thus... to come first of all to a suspension of judgement and then to mental tranquility." Skepticism so conceived is not merely the use of doubt, but is the use of doubt for a particular end: a calmness of the soul, or ataraxia. Skepticism poses itself as a challenge to dogmatism, or those who think they have found the truth. (Empiricus:31)

Empiricus noted that many dogmatic solutions to philosophical problems may be challenged by examining the subjective perceiver, the objective world, and the relationship between the perceiver and the world. The reliability of the subjective perceiver may be critiqued, for instance, by noting that perceptions are idiosyncratic to the perceiver. The trustworthiness of any claims about the properties of things in the objective world may be disputed by observing how the property of individual members seems to change depending on whether or not they are in a group: for example, the shavings of a goat's horn are white when taken alone, yet the horn intact is black. We might also question whether or not the subject and the object are in an appropriate relationship to one another: a pencil, when viewed lengthwise, looks like a stick; but when examined at the tip, it looks merely like a circle. These two ways of describing the object are incompatible, yet both seem true.

The forms of skepticism can be described in other ways. We may admit, for the purposes of argument, that there is such a thing as an external world. But this does not mean we know much about it. For example, inductive skepticism tells us that we do not know with deductive certitude that any regular occurrence -- say, the rising of the sun -- is going to happen. We seem to believe that the sun will continue to rise, but only out of habit, not because we are philosophically justified. We may also be rule skeptics, doubting whether or not we even know anything about our own minds, our own thoughts.

At root, the question of whether or not we can achieve knowledge, i.e., knowledge of the external world, is based on how high a standard we ask for justification. If we set a high standard, then nothing less than indubitability and infallibility could possibly yeild any knowledge. If our standard is too low, then we admit follies and illusions into our body of "knowledge". Still, even if these matters were resolved, in every case, we would have to justify our standard for justification, leading to infinite regress (known as regress skepticism).

Rationalism and empiricism.

René Descartes.
René Descartes.

In its most extreme form, rationalism is a doctrine characterized by the belief in innate ideas, and of the primacy of the role of the mind in the creation of knowledge. As a doctrine, it is long-lasting, with historical roots that stretch at least as far down as to Zeno of Elea.

René Descartes, who is often called the father of modern philosophy, proposed that philosophy should begin with a radical skepticism about the possibility of obtaining reliable knowledge. In 1641, in Meditations on First Philosophy, he used this method of doubt in an attempt to establish what knowledge is most certain. He chose as the foundation of his philosophy the famous statement Cogito ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am"). He then attempted to rebuild a system of knowledge based on this single supposedly indubitable fact. His approach became known as a species of rationalism; it attracted such philosophers as Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz, and Christian Wolff.

Gottfried Leibniz is often considered a rationalist, yet he argued against the views of Spinoza and Descartes. Leibniz argued against the Aristotelean tradition and empiricism of Locke. Locke's "pursuit of property" was opposed by Leibniz's "pursuit of happiness" which Leibniz defined as the pursuit of truth. Leibniz's philosophy was instrumental in the early American colonies and the American Revolution. Locke, on the other hand promoted human property (both white and black) and-like Hobbes-saw man as an irrational animal.

In response to the popularity of rationalism, John Locke wrote An Essay Concerning Human Understanding in 1689, developing a form of naturalism and empiricism on roughly scientific principles. Hume's work A Treatise of Human Nature (1739-40) combined empiricism with a spirit of skepticism. Other philosophers who made major contributions to empiricism include Thomas Hobbes and George Berkeley (Bishop Berkeley). Berkeley was perhaps the most radical empiricist arguing that human thought was of the least value whereas only the senses could be trusted. This spirit of Empiricism argued that the nature of man was that of an animal because both are slaves to the senses. The opposing view-in the tradition of Plato-argued that man was different because of rational thought.

During this era, religious ideas played a mixed role in the struggles that preoccupied secular philosophy. Bishop Berkeley's famous idealist refutation of Isaac Newton is a case of an Enlightenment philosopher who drew substantially from religious ideas. Other influential religious thinkers of the time include Blaise Pascal, Joseph Butler, and Jonathan Edwards. Other major writers, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Edmund Burke, took a slightly different path. The restricted interests of many of the philosophers of the time foreshadow the separation and specialization of different areas of philosophy that would occur in the twentieth century.

Kantian philosophy and the rise of idealism.

Immanuel Kant.
Immanuel Kant.

Immanuel Kant began as a follower of Gottfried Leibniz but turned instead to (Leibniz's philosophical enemy) Isaac Newton and Newton's mechanistic/deterministic model of the universe and of man. Kant wrote his Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787) in an attempt to reconcile the conflicting approaches of rationalism and empiricism and establish a new groundwork for studying metaphysics. Kant's intention with this work was to look at what we know and then consider what must be true about the way we know it. One major theme was that there are fundamental features of reality that escape our direct knowledge because of the natural limits of the human faculties. Kant's method was modeled on Euclid, though he eventually acknowledged that pure reason was insufficient to discover all truth. Kant's work was continued in the work of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Schelling, and Arthur Schopenhauer.

Kant's philosophy, known as transcendental idealism, would later be made more abstract and more general, in the movement known as German idealism, a type of absolute idealism. German idealism rose to popularity with G. W. F. Hegel's publication in 1807 of Phenomenology of Spirit. In that work, Hegel asserts that the aim of philosophy is to spot the contradictions apparent in human experience (which arise, for instance, out of the recognition of the self as both an active, subjective witness and a passive object in the world) and to get rid of these contradictions by making them compatible. Hegel wrote that every thesis creates its own antithesis, and that out of the two arises a synthesis. This process is known as the "Hegelian dialectic". Philosophers in the Hegelian tradition include Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and sometimes the British idealists.

American Pragmatism.

William James.
William James.

Philosophy and Pragmatism.

The late nineteenth century brought about the rise of a new philosophy in the Americas. Charles Peirce and William James are considered to be the co-founders of loosely allied schools of Pragmatism, which introduced what would later be called instrumentalism, the idea that what is important for a good theory is how useful it is, not how well it represents reality. Thinkers in this tradition included John Dewey, George Santayana, and C. I. Lewis. Though not widely recognized under the term "pragmatist", philosophers like Henri Bergson and G. E. Moore shared many of the same foundational assumptions with the pragmatists. Pragmatism has recently been taken in new directions by Richard Rorty and Hilary Putnam.

Philosophy: The prominence of logic.

Bertrand Russell.
Bertrand Russell.

Gottlob Frege and the early Edmund Husserl were interested in the philosophy of mathematics. Husserl's work Philosophy of Arithmatic, inspired by the teachings of Karl Weierstrass, hoped to show that the concept of the cardinal number was the foundation of arithmetic. The prospects for this project dwindled as Husserl entertained more and more doubts in the final chapters of that same work, culminating in the abandonment of the project by the 1890s. Husserl's philosophical change may have been helped along to a modest extent by Frege's critiques of psychologism. Frege's own work, the Begriffsschrift, developed the concepts of modern predicate logic by making use of the notions of the object and the function, and which would provide one alternative to psychologistic accounts of number.

Frege, and to a lesser extent, Husserl, influenced the logicians Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead. After the latters published Principia Mathematica (1910-1913), many philosophers took a renewed interest in the problems of mathematical logic. With this increased interest in mathematical logic came the rise in popularity for the view known as logical positivism and related theories, all of which shared a commitment to the reliability of empirical tests. Philosophers such as Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach, along with the members of the Vienna Circle in general, considered only verifiable claims to be genuine philosophy; anything that could not be deduced from testable claims was considered mere superstition or dogma. Karl Popper's insistence upon the role of falsification in the philosophy of science was a reaction to the logical positivists.

Philosophy: Phenomenology and hermeneutics.

Edmund Husserl.
Edmund Husserl.

At the same time that the analytic movement was coming to prominence in America and Britain, a separate movement occurred in continental Europe. Under the influence of Franz Brentano, the later Edmund Husserl developed a new method to study human problems in his Logical Investigations (1901) and Ideas (1913). The method, known as phenomenology, was used to examine the details of human experience and consciousness in order to observe the most basic facts of human existence; the examination included not just observations of the way the world appears but observations of one's own thoughts, and when and how they occur. This method was developed further in the work of Martin Heidegger and Maurice Merleau-Ponty.

Heidegger expanded the study of phenomenology to elaborate a philosophical hermeneutics. Hermeneutics is a method of interpreting texts by drawing out the meaning of the text in the context it was written in. Heidegger stressed two new elements of philosophical hermeneutics: that the reader brings out the meaning of the text in the present, and that the tools of hermeneutics can be used to interpret more than just texts (e.g. "social text"). Elaborations of philosophical hermeneutics later came from Hans-Georg Gadamer and Paul Ricoeur.

Philosophy and Existentialism.

Søren Kierkegaard.
Søren Kierkegaard.

In the mid-twentieth century, existentialism developed in Europe, particularly in France and Germany in opposition to Leibniz's rationalism and optimism (Theological views and the philosophy of the "Best of all possible worlds"). The most prominent exponent of existentialism is Jean-Paul Sartre, although existentialist thought received major impetus from the nineteenth century philosophers Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, both of whom pre-date existentialism and whose contributions extend beyond existentialist thought.

Kierkegaard, a Danish philosopher generally considered the "Father of Existentialism", argued that "truth is subjectivity", meaning that what is most important to an existing being are questions dealing with an individual's inner relationship to existence. Objective truths (e.g. mathematical truths) are important, but detached or observational modes of thought can never truly comprehend human experience. Kierkegaard postulated complex ethico-religious philosophical premises, based in part on the three stages on life's way: the aesthetic, the ethical, and the religious. Nietzsche postulated complex aesthetico-philosophical premises, based in part upon the concept of the will to power. Existentialists sometimes view Nietzsche's thought as characteristic of existentialism, due to the manner in which it places high value in individualism and self-creation, or self-defining.

Drawing on these ideas, existentialism rejects the notion of a human essence, instead trying to draw out the ability of each person to live authentically, which is to say that each person is able to define and determine his or her own life. Sartre's expression of existentialism in Being and Nothingness (1943). Other influential existentialists include Albert Camus, Simone de Beauvoir, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Karl Jaspers. Fyodor Dostoevsky, Franz Kafka, and other literary figures, although not usually considered philosophers, have also contributed greatly to this thought.

Philosophy: The Analytic tradition.

Noam Chomsky.
Noam Chomsky.

The tenor of mid-twentieth century philosophy in Anglo- nations was not as united behind a major philosophical idea as it had been in the past. Still, a general philosophical method can be abstracted from the philosophy that was going on at the time.

Analytic philosophy developed as a reaction against obscure, vague, and neologistic pronouncements by Hegel and his followers. In 1921, Ludwig Wittgenstein published his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, which gave a rigidly logical account of linguistic and philosophical issues. At the time, he understood most of the problems of philosophy as mere puzzles of language, which could be solved by clear thought. Years later he would reverse a number of his positions set out in the Tractatus, as revealed by the content of his second major work, Philosophical Investigations (1953). Investigations encouraged the development of "ordinary language philosophy", which was developed by Gilbert Ryle, J. L. Austin, and a few others. The "ordinary language philosophy" thinkers shared a common outlook with many older philosophers (Jeremy Bentham, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and John Stuart Mill), and it was the philosophical inquiry that characterized English-language philosophy for the second half of the twentieth century. Still, the clarity of meaning was understood to be of ultimate significance.

The implied outlook for "ordinary language philosophy" is that problems in one area of philosophy can be solved independently of problems in other areas of philosophy. Philosophy is thus not a unified whole but a set of unrelated problems. Great thinkers whose work indicates an acceptance of this general outlook include Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, P. F. Strawson, Donald Davidson, Hilary Putnam, Tadeusz Kotarbinski, John Rawls, Noam Chomsky, and the continental thinker Mikhail Bakhtin.

Since then, a plurality of new movements has passed through English-language philosophy. Drawing on the metaphilosophical observation made by Wittgenstein in his second major work, Philosophical Investigations, in which he notes that a good approach to philosophy must itself be based on a careful examination of the meaning of language, a new group of philosophers have adopted a methodological skepticism. This is seen most prominently in the work of W. V. O. Quine and Wilfrid Sellars (but with ideas going back to Auguste Comte and Whitehead). The group's concerns converge on the ideas of naturalism, holism (in opposition to most of what is considered analytic philosophy), instrumentalism, and the denial of Platonic universals. A number of other perspectives have branched out from Wittgenstein's legacy. One of these is the reworking of Arisotelian moral and political philosophy pioneered by G.E.M. Anscombe and Alasdair MacIntyre, although most analytic philosophers currently working do not consider themselves affiliated with any particular school of thought and approach philosophy's problems in a more piecemeal manner than did their predecessors.

Ethics and political philosophy (Western Philosophy).

Thomas Hobbes.
Thomas Hobbes.

From ancient times, and well beyond them, the roots of justification for political authority were inescapably tied to outlooks on human nature. In The Republic, Plato declared that the ideal society would be run by a council of philosopher-kings, since those best at philosophy are best able to realize the good. Even Plato, however, required philosophers to make their way in the world for many years before beginning their rule at the age of fifty. For Aristotle, humans are political animals (i.e. social animals), and governments are set up in order to pursue good for the community. Aristotle reasoned that, since the state (polis) was the highest form of community, it has the purpose of pursuing the highest good. Aristotle viewed political power to be the result of natural inequalities in skill and virtue. Because of these differences, he favored an aristocracy of the able and virtuous. For Aristotle, the person cannot be complete unless he or she lives in a community. His two books, The Nicomachean Ethics and The Politics, are meant to be read in that order. The first book addresses virtues/excellences in the person as a citizen; the second addresses the proper form of government to ensure virtuous (and thus complete) citizens. Both books deal with the essential role of justice as a necessary virtue in civic life.

Nicolas of Cusa rekindled Platonic thought in the early 15th Century and promoted democracy in Medieval Europe in his writings and his organization of the Council of Florence. Unlike Aristotle and the Hobbsenian tradition to follow, Cusa saw man as equal and divine (in God's image) and thus democracy would be the only just form of government. Cusa's views are credited by some as sparking the Italian Renaissance which gave rise to the notion of "Nation-States".

Later, Niccolò Machiavelli, rejected Aristotle's (and Thomas Aquinas') view as unrealistic. The ideal sovereign is not the embodiment of the moral virtues; rather the sovereign does what's successful and necessary rather than what's morally praiseworthy. Thomas Hobbes also contested many elements of Aristotle's views. For Hobbes, human nature is essentially anti-social: people are essentially egoistic, and this egoism makes life difficult in the natural state of things. Moreover, Hobbes argued, though people may have natural inequalities, these are trivial, since no particular talents or virtues that a person may have will make them safe from harm inflicted by others. For these reasons, Hobbes concluded that the state arises from common agreement to raise the community out of the state of nature. This can only be done by the establishment of a sovereign, which (or who) is vested with complete control over the community, and is able to inspire awe and terror in its subjects.

Many in the Enlightenment were unsatisfied with existing doctrines in political philosophy, which seemed to marginalize or neglect the possibility of a democratic state. One attempt to overturn these doctrines was that of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who responded to Hobbes by claiming that a human is by nature a kind of "noble savage", and that society and social contracts corrupt this nature. In his Second Treatise on Government John Locke agreed with Hobbes that the nation-state was an efficient tool for raising humanity out of a deplorable state, but argued that the sovereign may become an abominable institution compared to the relatively benign unmodulated state of nature.

Following the doctrine of the fact-value distinction, due in part to the influence of David Hume and his student, Adam Smith, appeals to human nature for political justification were weakened. Nevertheless, many political philosophers, especially moral realists, still make use of some essential human nature as a basis for their arguments.

Consequentialism, deontology, and the aretaic turn.

Jeremy Bentham.
Jeremy Bentham.

One debate that has dominated the attention of ethicists in the history of the modern era has been between Consequentialism (the idea that the consequences of a particular action form the basis for any valid moral judgement about that action) and Deontology (that decisions should be made solely or primarily by considering one's duties and the rights of others).

Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill are famous for propagating utilitarianism, which is the idea that the fundamental moral rule is to strive toward the "greatest happiness for the greatest number". However, in promoting this idea they also necessarily promoted the broader doctrine of consequentialism: that is to say, the idea that the morally right thing to do in any situation is determined by the consequences of the actions under consideration.

In contrast to consequentialism, Immanuel Kant argued that moral principles were simply products of reason. Kant believed that the incorporation of consequences into moral deliberation was a deep mistake, since it would deny the necessity of practical maxims to the working of the will. According to Kant, reason requires that we conform our actions to the categorical imperative, which is an absolute duty. An important 20th-century deontologist, W.D. Ross, argued for weaker forms of duties called prima facie duties.

More recent works have emphasized the role of character in ethics, a movement known as the aretaic turn. One strain of this movement followed the work of Bernard Williams. Williams noted that rigid forms of both consequentialism and deontology demanded that people behave impartially. This, Williams argued, requires that people abandon their personal projects, and hence their personal integrity, in order to be considered moral.

G.E.M. Anscombe, in an influential paper, "Modern Moral Philosophy" (1958), revived Virtue ethics as an alternative to what was seen as the entrenched positions of Kantianism and consequentialism. Aretaic perspectives have been inspired in part by research of ancient conceptions of virtue. For example, Aristotle's ethics demands that people follow the Aristotelian mean, or balance between two vices; and Confucian ethics argues that virtue consists largely in striving for harmony with other people. Virtue ethics in general has since gained some adherence and has been defended by such philosophers as Philippa Foot, Alasdair MacIntyre and Rosalind Hursthouse.

Applied philosophy.

Though often seen as a wholly abstract field, philosophy is not without practical applications. The most obvious applications are those in ethics - applied ethics in particular - and in political philosophy. The political and economic philosophies of Confucius, Sun Zi, Niccolò Machiavelli, Gottfried Leibniz, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, Mahatma Gandhi, and others, have shaped and been used to justify the existence of governments and their actions.

A modern example is the political movement Neoconservatism which began as a philosophical tradition at the University of Chicago centered around Leo Strauss and his unique interpretations of the work of Plato. This intellectual movement went on to shape most of the politics of the George W. Bush presidency, demonstrating that seemingly "ivory tower" movements have real world consequences.

In the field of the philosophy of education, progressive education as championed by John Dewey has had a profound impact on educational practices in the United States in the twentieth century. Descendants of this movement include the current Philosophy for Children efforts. Carl von Clausewitz's political philosophy of war has had a profound effect on statecraft, international politics and military strategy in the 20th century, especially in the years around World War II. Logic has become crucially important in mathematics and computer science and engineering.

Other important applications can be found in epistemology, which aid in understanding the notions of what knowledge, evidence, and justified belief are. The Philosophy of science discusses the underpinnings of the scientific method and has affected the nature of scientific investigation and argumentation. Deep ecology and animal rights examine the place of humans in the moral configuration of reality as a whole. Aesthetics can help to interpret discussions of art.

In general, the various "philosophies of..." strive to provide workers in their respective fields with a deeper understanding of the theoretical or conceptual underpinnings of their fields.

Often philosophy is seen as an investigation into an area not sufficiently well understood to be its own branch of knowledge. What were once philosophical pursuits have evolved into the modern day fields such as psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics (among others).




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