Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105), is the fifth and final operational NASA Space Shuttle.
History of Space Shuttle Endeavour.
|Space Shuttle Endeavour.|
Space Shuttle Endeavour on the launch pad prior to mission STS-113, November 22, 2002.
|Contract award||31 July 1987|
|Named after||HM Bark Endeavour|
May 7, 1992 - May 16, 1992
November 24 2002 - 7 December 2002
|Number of missions||19|
|Time spent in space||206.60 days|
|Number of orbits||3,259|
|Distance travelled||136,910,237 km|
The United States Congress authorized the construction of Endeavour in 1987 to replace Challenger, which was lost in an accident in 1986. Structural spares from the construction of the other two still active shuttles Discovery and Atlantis were used in its assembly. The decision to build Endeavour was favored over refitting Enterprise because it was less expensive.
Endeavour was delivered by Rockwell International in May 1991 and first launched a year later, in May 1992, on STS-49. Rockwell International claimed that it had made no profit on Space Shuttle Endeavour, despite it costing $2.2 billion USD. On its first mission, it captured and redeployed the stranded INTELSAT VI communications satellite.
In 1993, it made the first service mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. Endeavour was withdrawn from service for eight months in 1997 for a retrofit, including installation of a new airlock. In December 1998, it delivered the Unity Module to the International Space Station.
Endeavour was named through a national competition involving students in elementary and secondary schools. The orbiter is named after HM Bark Endeavour, the ship commanded by 18th century explorer James Cook; the name also honored Endeavour, the command module of Apollo 15. This is why the name is spelled in the British English manner, rather than the American English spelling of "Endeavor."
Endeavour completed its latest Orbiter Major Modification period, which began in December 2003, and ended on Thursday, October 6, 2005. During this time, the Orbiter received major hardware upgrades, including a new, multi-functional, electronic display system, often referred to as glass cockpit, and an advanced GPS receiver, along with safety upgrades recommended by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) for Shuttle return to flight after the disintegration of sister-ship Columbia during re-entry on February 1, 2003.
Endeavour is housed in the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 2 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, where it is prepared for its next mission to the International Space Station, STS-118, Currently scheduled for August 2007.
Upgrades and features to Space Shuttle Endeavour.
Endeavour features new hardware designed to improve and expand orbiter capabilities. Most of this equipment was later incorporated into the other three orbiters during out-of-service major inspection and modification programs. Endeavour's upgrades include:
Modifications resulting from a 2005-2006 refit of Endeavour include:
Flights of Space Shuttle Endeavour.
Space Shuttle Endeavour has flown 19 flights, spent 206.60 days in space, completed 3,259 orbits, and flown 85,072,077 miles (136,910,237 km) in total, as of February 2003. It last flew in November 2002.
|1992 May 7||STS-49||First flight of Endeavour: Capture and redeploy Intelsat VI. First three-man EVA and longest US EVA since Apollo 17|
|1992 Sep 12||STS-47||Spacelab mission J|
|1993 Jan 13||STS-54||Deploy TDRS-F|
|1993 Jun 21||STS-57||Spacelab experiments. Retrieve European Retrievable Carrier|
|1993 Dec 2||STS-61||First Hubble Space Telescope service mission (HSM-1)|
|1994 Apr 9||STS-59||Space Radar Laboratory experiments|
|1994 Sep 30||STS-68||Space Radar Laboratory experiments|
|1995 Mar 30||STS-67||Spacelab Astro-2 experiments|
|1995 Sep 7||STS-69||Wake Shield Facility and other experiments|
|1996 Jan 11||STS-72||Retrieve Japanese Space Flyer Unit|
|1996 May 19||STS-77||Spacelab experiments|
|1998 Jan 22||STS-89||Rendezvous with Mir Space station and astronaut exchange|
|1998 Dec 4||STS-88||International Space Station assembly mission (assembled the Unity Module (Node 1), first American component of the ISS)|
|2000 Feb 11||STS-99||Shuttle Radar Topography Mission experiments|
|2000 Nov 30||STS-97||International Space Station assembly mission (P6 truss segment)|
|2001 Apr 19||STS-100||International Space Station assembly mission (Canadarm2 robotic arm and hand)|
|2001 Dec 5||STS-108||International Space Station rendezvous and astronaut exchange (Expedition 3/Expedition 4)|
|2002 Jun 5||STS-111||International Space Station rendezvous and astronaut exchange (Expedition 4/Expedition 5)|
|2002 Nov 23||STS-113||International Space Station assembly mission and astronaut exchange/final successful shuttle flight before the Columbia disaster (Expedition 5/6 exchange; P1 truss segment assembly)|
|NET2007 August 5||STS-118||Scheduled International Space Station assembly mission; S5 truss segment assembly)|
Decommissioning of Space Shuttle Endeavour.
According to NASA, Space Shuttle Endeavour will be decommissioned in 2010, after 18 years of service, along with Discovery (Atlantis is scheduled for retirement in 2008). NASA expects to have the Orion spacecraft, a reusable launch vehicle, ready no later than 2014. Based on the April 2007 launch manifest, Endeavour will be the last Orbiter to fly, on the STS-133 mission to the International Space Station, which will carry the final two components of the station, Node 3 and the Cupola, to orbit.
The Endeavour in fiction.