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It appears Galaxies in the Universe didn't evolve at similar speeds.
New observations from the Hubble Space Telescope are helping Astronomers fine tune their models of star formation, including an estimate of just how massive a star can become. Hubble carefully observed the Arches cluster, a group of stars collectively weighing 10,000 solar masses. Standard theories predicted 20 to 30 stars in the cluster would have 150 solar masses, but none turned up; although, at least a dozen push 100 solar masses. What variables could limit the amount of mass a star can pack on?
It appears that Galaxies in the early universe didn't evolve at similar speeds or in the same ways. Almost right from the beginning, the universe was filled with Galaxies large and small, dusty and clear, active with star formation and relatively sedate. Researchers from the US used Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) aboard NASA's Spitzer space telescope to study Galaxies 10-12 billion light-years away. Instead of finding a similar set of galaxies, they turned up tremendous varieties, as much as we see in the night sky today.
Cassini has made a few passes of Titan now, and the European Space Agency's Huygens probe has landed on its surface, so Saturn's largest Moon is starting to reveal its secrets. scientists involved with the mission have recently published some of their findings in the Journal Nature. Some of their insights include the discovery of a long river, 1,500 km (930 miles) long and evidence that winds on Titan blow faster than the Moon rotates. The climate seems to revolve around liquid methane, which can flow in rivers, fall as rain, and collect in vast lakes.
NASA scientists have finally worked out why there's a safe zone in the Earth's radiation belts, thousands of km above the surface. It turns out that lightning in the lower atmosphere generates radio waves which interact with radiation around the Earth, removing some of its energy and changing the direction of charged particles. This safe zone could be used as a haven by satellites to reduce the damage they take while operating in these regions.
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