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Astronomers study the deepest optical view of the universe.
Astronomers have been studying the deepest optical view of the universe - the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) - and they think they've found some of the first star forming galaxies. These Galaxies began forming 0.5 to 1 billion years after the Big Bang. The team analyzed the HUDF, and found dozens of red, dim dwarf galaxies, which appear to be the first basic galactic building blocks. These would merge with other Galaxies to eventually form the complex spiral formations like our own Milky Way. The also found regions which were more dense than others, which supports the theory that dense regions of space where the first places Galaxies formed.
The Chandra X-Ray Observatory took this image of a pulsar surrounded by high-energy particles as it plows through interstellar space. The pulsar is hurtling to the left in this image at a speed of 2.1 million kph (1.3 million mph), and the particles are being blasted back like the tail on a comet. The pulsar is known as "The Mouse", aka G359.23-0.82, and it was discovered in 1987 by radio Astronomers using the Very Large Array in New Mexico. Because it's moving so quickly and interacting so visibly with its environment, Astronomers have a unique opportunity to understand pulsar magnetic fields, and how they eject material.
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