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The Earth's early oceans looked much different than today's.
The Earth's early oceans looked much different than today's, according to researchers from the University of Rochester; they were probably devoid of oxygen for a billion years longer than previously thought. Most geologists believe that the oceans had no oxygen for the first two billion years, and have been oxygen-rich for the last 500 million, but the time in between was a mystery. The team studied rocks that were on the floor of an ancient ocean, one billion years ago, and found that it was still oxygen poor at that time.
One long term goal to help the expansion of humans into space would be to terraform the planet Mars to make it more Earthlike. This would be planetary engineering on the largest scale, taking hundreds of years and requiring an immense amount of resources. Researcher Omar Pensado Diaz believes the best way to terraform Mars would be to do it piece-by-piece, creating Earthlike regions instead of trying to do the whole planet at once.
Caltech and Cornell have begun a $2 million study to build a 25-metre telescope in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. The telescope will observe the sky in the submillimeter spectrum, which will allow it to see objects which don't emit much visible or Infrared light. This would be a significant improvement over the 10.4-metre instrument that Caltech already operates, giving up to 12 times the light gathering power. If construction of the instrument goes ahead, it should be completed by 2012.
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